Petroleum Testing and Analysis

Oil and Gas Energy

Course Overview

The course first introduces the purpose of well testing and the basic methodology. The theory and fundamental equations, as well as various understanding analytical solutions are covered before introducing specific analysis techniques for homogeneous oil and gas reservoirs. Non-homogeneous situations and more advanced topics are also covered. Assumptions made in deriving equations and solutions and models used in test interpretation are stressed. Operational aspects are covered in terms of test design and use of specialised testing equipment. The course covers well test objectives and concepts; fluid flow equations and fundamental solutions; classical methods for drawdown and build-up analysis, bounded reservoirs, gas well testing, dual-porosity, hydraulic fractures, interference and pulse testing, test design.

Overview of practical methods, some field examples and browsing the commercial software will introduce students into practice of well testing and pressure transient analysis.

Emphasis will be placed on the practical aspects of well testing and several class examples will be offered. Further, the use of the analysis results as a reservoir management tool to make decisions related to reservoir development and well completion will be illustrated through actual case studies throughout the workshop.

Course Objectives

  • Discuss the history of crude oil as it relates to supply and training patterns
  • Gain an insight into the principles of geology and of geological controls on hydrocarbon generation, migration, accumulation and production/recovery.
  • Understand the key geological concepts within development (production) geology: stratigraphic/depositional controls on reservoir thickness and rock quality distribution;
    role of sedimentary architecture and structural geology on reservoir connectivity and compartmentalisation; reservoir subdivision, establishment of flow units and correlation.
  • Appreciate how these geological features fundamentally influence effective appraisal, development and reservoir management of oil and gas fields.
  • Appreciate the importance of a multidisciplinary approach and integration of geological, geophysical and petroleum engineering data in field development and production, leading to an increase in awareness of the relationship between the various disciplines covered in the petroleum related courses.
  • Define and discuss key terminology
  • Discuss sample protocols
  • Review and discuss case studies.

Course Outline

  • The Earth: its properties, internal structure and age
  • Earth sciences: definition and overview
  • Various types of rocks, their origins and examples
  • Rocks associated with oil and gas:
    • Sedimentary rocks: their origin, key features and associated terminology
    • Depositional environments, processes and the concept of facies
  • Introduction to geological time, principles of stratigraphy and stratigraphic relations:
    • The concepts of relative and absolute time
    • Measurement of geological time
    • The Uniformitarian Principle
    • The Law of Superposition
    • Unconformities
    • Sequence startigraphy
    • Establishing lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic units
    • Correlation
  • Principles of structural geology: various types of geological structures (folds, faults and thrusts) and their relationship to oil and gas occurrence
  • Definition of oil and gas fields
  • Habitat of oil and gas and factor that control their occurrence
  • Processes that control the occurrence of oil and gas fields
  • Geological controls on oil and gas occurrence
  • Sedimentary basins:
  • Formation and development
  • Global distribution
  • Exploration status
  • Production status
  • Association between sedimentary basins and oil and gas occurrence
  • Overview of plate tectonics
  • Plate tectonics control on the formation, evolution and characteristics of sedimentary basins
  • Petroleum substances – chemical composition of oil and gas
  • Petroleum systems analysis in terms of elements and processes:
    • Source rocks: origin, burial history and maturation
    • Generation of petroleum
    • Migration of petroleum
    • Petroleum reservoir rocks and their properties
    • Oil and gas traps
    • Seals
    • Timing of events and processes
  • Exploring for oil and gas sources of data
  • Acquisition and interpretation of geological and geophysical data
    • Seismic sequence stratigraphy
  • Subsurface mapping
  • Various types of contour maps
  • Reserves:
    • Definition and classification
  • Reserves estimation:
    • Volumetric (the deterministic and probabilistic methods)
    • Performance analysis
  • Leads and prospects
  • Risk and risk analysis
  • Crude Oil History; Supply and Trading Patterns
  • Quality Variations and Their Causes
  • The Complexities of Crude Oil Composition
  • Sampling Protocols
  • Sampling Containers and Sample Integrity
  • Composition and Classification
  • Other Important Crude Oils and Fraction Properties
  • Basics of Crude Oil Processing Evaluation
  • Bituminum and Extra Heavy Crude Oils
  • Crude Oil Quality Case Studies
  • Challenges Presented to the Analyst by Heavier, Higher Sulfur Feedstocks and Opportunity Crude Oils
  • Future Needs in Crude Oil Characterization and Analytical Test Method Requirements
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  • 8 Weeks Online
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